Respiratory distress syndrome in infants (A Review)

  • Anis Mohammad A, Osman Khan Electrical Engineering Department, South Africa



Preterm labor is the main cause of infant mortality in advanced countries; babies born preterm are at higher risk for short-term and long-term complications, including physical disability and mental development. Due to severe neonatal complications often followed, preterm labor is a very serious problem. Some of these complications include respiratory distress syndrome, intracranial hemorrhage, sepsis, and necrotizing colitis , many of which might lead to the death of the infant. One of the major problems of preterm infants is the lack of adequate lung function and, consequently, respiratory distress, known as "Neonatal Respiratory Distress Syndrome" . The most common reason for admission of preterm and term infants in hospitals is respiratory disease for special care. Respiratory distress syndrome is more prevalent in preterm infants, and its incidence is related to birth weight and intrauterine age. To paint a general picture, it is prevalent in infants of diabetic mothers, gestational age under 37 weeks, multiple pregnancy, the implementation of caesarean section, accelerated delivery and cold stress. It is most common in newborns. The main cause of respiratory distress syndrome in newborns is the lack of surfactant in the baby's lung. The main components of surfactant are lecithin (disalmotyl phosphatidyl choline), phosphatidyl glycerol, apoproteins (SP-A, B, C, D) and glycerol .With increased uterine age, more phospholipid is produced and stored in type 2 alveolar cells. These agents are released into the alveoli and reduce the surface tension and help prevent collapse of the small airway at the tail end and help rehabilitate the lung after exhalation; however, he amount that is produced and secreted may not be adequate to meet


the premature baby's demand. At 20 weeks of pregnancy, surfactant is present with high concentrations in the lung tissue of the fetus, but it doesn't reaches the level of the lung alveoli; it appears in amniotic fluid between 28 and 32 weeks

How to Cite
Osman Khan, A. M. A. (2018). Respiratory distress syndrome in infants (A Review). Journal of Current Medical Research and Opinion, 1(01), 9-12. Retrieved from