The Etiology and Treatment of Bronchiolitis In Children (A Review)
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the main cause of bronchiolitis in infants, and it is commonly the main cause of epidemics. The main cause of bronchiolitis is generally viral, including RSV, human metapneumovirus, influenza virus, human parainfluenza viruses, adenoviruses, and rhinovirus. From among the bacterial causes, pertussis has been introduced as the one making bronchiolitis symptoms. As the age increases, the prevalence rate and severity of diseases arising from RSV decreases. This virus brings about 90,000 hospitalization cases and 4500 deaths in the United States. This virus has been observed in at least 20% of the children hospitalized. The treatment of bronchiolitis is a supportive one, and it includes monitoring, fever control, proper hydration, upper airway suctioning, and oxygen prescription. The main treatment of bronchiolitis is oxygen prescription; patients feeling worse tend to be hypoxic. The oxygen saturation percentage needs to be at the level of 92% or higher. For this purpose, the prescription of lukewarm and wet oxygen (30% to 40%) through mask or nasogastric tube is sufficient. Bronchiolitis complications include apnea, dehydration, electrolyte disorders (usually hyponatremia), added bacterial infection, myocardial dysfunction, Myocarditis, and respiratory failure. Most of the children hospitalized in the hospital will recover significantly only through a supportive treatment within 2-5 days. After the recovery, wheezing or coughing lasted for several weeks or months in less than 20% of the patients. Older children and adults produce an antibody against RSV. However, the immunity is not complete and reinfection can occur at any age.